Specialist in the Treatment of Ferrous and Non-Ferrous Metals

+44 (0) 121 526 2000

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Non Ferrous Metals

The heat treatment of cast / wrought aluminium and extruded alloys is carried out to change the mechanical properties of the castings or extrusions. The heat treatment consists of one or more thermal cycles being applied to the aluminium alloy components. The thermal treatments are designed by suffixes and main ones are as follows

  • M As cast or as manufactured
  • TB or T4 Solution treated and naturally aged
  • TE or T5 Artificially aged
  • TB7 Solution treated and stabilized
  • TF of T6 Solution heat treated and fully artificially aged
  • TF7 Solution treated and artificially aged and stabilized
  • TS Stress relieved and annealed
  • Freezing/Setting
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Solution Treatment (TB Condition)

Castings or extrusion are heated to a temperature just below the alloy melting point (this varies depending on the chemical compositions), for a time (this varies with alloy and section of the component) to allow the alloying constituents to enter into a solid solution. This solid solution is maintained by rapid cooling either by polymer quenching or hot water quenching in order to reduce distortion and reduce internal stresses.

Precipitation Treatment (TE Condition)

This treatment is carried out in order to increase the strength and hardness of solution treated /as cast / as manufactured extrusions. The times and temperature vary depending upon the alloy and are usually in the temperature range 150/200°c. Times vary between 2/24 hours. Lower temperatures and longer times give better precipitation and thus better mechanical properties.

Solution Treated and Stabilized Treatment (TB7 Condition)

After solution treatment the casting can be brought into a stable state by heating to a temperature between 200/250°c. Times and temperature vary with different alloys and mass of the components.

Solution and Precipitation Treatment (TF Condition)

The highest mechanical properties are obtained by solution treatment followed by a precipitation treatment as described in the section on precipitation.

Solution Treated and Stabilized Treatment (TF7 Condition)

Some components that are used at elevated temperatures such as pistons require a solution treatment and stabilization between 200/250°c in order that further heating of the component in service will not affect the mechanical properties.

Stress Relieving and Annealing Treatment (TS Condition)

These processes are used to remove casting stresses of soften alloys for subsequent shaping or mechanical working. Stress relieving can be carried out between 200/250°c and annealing from 350/400°c.

Copper Alloys

Dezincification Resistant Brass Treatment (DZR)

This is used where dezincification type of corrosion may occur. This type of corrosion is prominent in hot water systems. The resistance is obtained by careful control of the alloy composition and the subsequent heat treatment. The heat treatment consists of heating between 500 - 540°c for 2 - 5 hours and slow air cooling.


Following the solution process parts can be set to customer tolerances

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